HOWDEN EXPLORED

Howden is not a well-known town and many have only glimpsed its distant church tower as they rush past on the M62. It is however a town well worth an extended visit for its thousand years of documented history are reflected in the fine buildings which line its attractive winding streets and alleyways.

Of particular significance was Howden's close connection with the Bishopric of Durham from the 11th to the 19th century. This link gave the town its market and fairs, its magnificent Minster and the recently restored medieval Bishop's Manor House. Howden has long been the largest settlement in the western part of the East Riding and before the rise of Goole it was the chief market town for a wide area. It boasted a great array of tradesmen and craftsmen as well as numerous innkeepers, attorneys and medical men, many of whose homes and workplaces of the 18th and 19th centuries survive. The annual horse fair at the end of September was said to be the largest in the kingdom. When the fair ended in the early 20th century Howden went into decline thereby preserving its fascinating historic townscape for both visitor and inhabitant to experience today. Howden is now a thriving residential town with excellent shops and services and an understandable desire to conserve its heritage.

This booklet provides a guided tour of Howden in the form of a town trail.

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The town trail begins by going west from the Market Place into the grounds of Howden's most prominent building the magnificent church of St. Peter, now commonly known as HOWDEN MINSTER (1). There was a church at Howden in the Anglo-Saxon period and in the early 11th century it was held, along with the manor, by the Abbey of Peterborough. In 1080 William the Conqueror granted the manor and the church to the Bishop of Durham, who kept the manor for himself and his successors and granted the church to the Prior and Convent of Durham Cathedral. The famous chronicler Roger de Hoveden was the earliest known incumbent of this wealthy living. In 1267, in order to make better spiritual provision for the vast parish of Howden, the Prior and Convent obtained permission to establish Howden as a collegiate church governed by a chapter of priests.

Although there are stones re-used from earlier structures the present fabric dates from immediately after the establishment of the collegiate church. The north and south transepts are of c.1270 and to the east was a new choir of a similar date built by John of Howden, one of the canons and chaplain to Queen Eleanor, who was buried in the choir on his death in 1272. The Chronicle of Lanercost records that he was 'held for a saint, and from the offerings of the thronging people we see not only the choir, but a spacious and elaborate nave in course of completion'. The nave was begun c.1280 with stone from the quarries at Tevesdale, near Tadcaster, and the west end was completed by 1310. The south porch was built at the same time. The wealth and prominence of the church in the early 14th century is shown by their ability to rebuild the choir from c.1300 onwards although it was less than half a century old. The new choir was completed c.1330.

The splendid octagonal chapter house in the Perpendicular style on the south side of the choir was built 1380-1400. Bishop Skirlaw was also responsible for building the middle section of the magnificent tower. The top stage of the tower was completed at the end of the 15th century when Skirlaw's grammar school had new buildings erected adjoining the south side of the nave. The school remained in existence until the 1920s.

Following the dissolution of the college of priests in the 1540s the incumbent became a vicar under the patronage of York, and the maintenance of this vast church became the responsibility of the parishioners. The tithe owners and lessees did not, as was their duty, keep the choir in repair and as early as 1575 its roof was described as being almost down. The vaulting finally fell during a thunderstorm in 1696. The choir had already been abandoned, for safety reasons, by the parishioners in 1609 when they obtained permission to close the arch between the choir and crossings. The roof and spire of the chapter house fell down in 1750. In 1970 the Department of the Environment took it into guardianship and began an extensive programme of repairs which has included re-roofing the chapter house.

From the churchyard the trail retraces its steps and goes through the gateway on the south side of the Market Place to reach Howden's most important domestic building THE BISHOP OF DURHAM'S MANOR HOUSE (2). Howden was a convenient stopping place for the prince bishops on their frequent journeys between Durham and London and it is not surprising to find that certain prelates chose to spend the important festivals of Easter and Christmas at this safer and quieter place. The future King John was entertained here. At least three bishops of Durham died here including Walter Skirlaw, in 1405. It is to Bishop Skirlaw, the son of a peasant of Skirlaugh in Holderness, that much of the surviving part of the Manor House can be credited. A chronicler states how he rebuilt the hall and other associated buildings, and the porch still bears his coat of arms externally and internally.

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The late 14th century battlemented porch with round-headed archway is on a grand scale with an upper chamber incorporating a traceried window and fireplace. The ribvaulted ceiling carries a large boss of arms. Of the great medieval hall certain features survive from Bishop Skirlaw's time; the fine ashlar south wall, with its large buttresses, retains the outline of three spacious windows (12ft wide and 16ft high) which were later blocked and replaced by two rows of sash windows, and an arched doorway which led to the screens passage; the west wall incorporates doorways and recesses relating to the demolished kitchen and its associated pantry and buttery; the north wall was apparently largely rebuilt, faced with ashlar and re-windowed in the late 18th-early 19th century; the east wall is possibly of an earlier period than the hall and relates to a former adjoining chamber block. Internally the whole building was transformed in the 17th-18th centuries when it was converted from a single storey open medieval hall to a two storey and attic private house.

The bishops of Durham remained owners of the manor house until 1836 when it passed along with the manor to the newly created bishopric of Ripon and it was the lessee, Rev. J. Dunnington-Jefferson of Thicket,who in the 1850s removed the manorial buildings which stood on the north and west sides of the courtyard. In 1927 the surviving building was presented to the people of Howden by Charles Briggs. It became a private residence but was in a neglected state 20 years ago. In February 1975 when the building was no longer occupied it caught fire and the eastern end including the roof was substantially damaged. Pressure to demolish this important building was opposed by local people and at the end of 1977 the building was officially scheduled as an ancient monument. Dereliction however continued until 1982 when, through the personal intervention of Dame Jennifer Jenkins, the Monument Historic Buildings Trust (a Sainsbury Family Trust) was persuaded to buy the building for restoration and re-sale. The thorough restoration supervised by the architects Weightman and Brown of York was completed in 1985 and this superb building is now used as offices.

To the west of the Manor House is the RECTORY (formerly the Vicarage) (3) which was built in the grounds of the Manor House in 1863. This large brick and slate building in a typical Gothic 'parsonage' style was designed by Ewan Christian and paid for chiefly by John Clough, a local banker. Adjoining the Rectory on the west are further remnants of the Manor House buildings. There is a fine 15th century brick and stone gateway bearing the arms of Cardinal Langley who was bishop of Durham 1406-37 and alongside the stone 'courthouse'.

From the Manor House the trail goes south along the path to the Ashes Playing Fields which were given to the town by Charles Briggs in 1925. The name Ashes was in use by the 17th century for this area which originally formed the gardens and grounds of the Manor House. Part of the area is surrounded by a wide and well preserved moat which includes a further wide ditch thought to have been used as a fishpond. The moated area is reached via a small GATEHOUSE (4), known as 'The Fruit House'. This attractive building stands on a round arched stone bridge patched with brick and it consists partly of medieval masonry and partly of 18th and 20th-century brick. The coped gable contains the letters APF (Ashes Playing Fields) made out of pieces of medieval tracery. A plaque to the right reads 'On 9th Oct 1929 water used for the church fire was pumped from this moat near here being the on1y supply available'.

Retrace your steps and turn right along the footpath that runs south of the Manor House. Cross the car park and enter HAILGATE. The name, recorded by the late 15th century, means 'the street leading to Hail'. Hail ('a nook of land') is part of Howden township. Hailgate runs the whole length of the town; its curving route follows the line of the Old Derwent, a stream which runs to the west of the street and can be seen at its northern and southern ends.

Hailgate is lined by 18th and 19th century houses and cottages. To the south are two of the best houses on the street, 100-102 HAILGATE (5). Built c.1800 this pair of houses is of brown brick with red brick dressings. The ground floor has two segmental bow windows with original cornices and friezes. Across the road 73 HAILGATE (6) contains remnants of the Red Lion Inn which was one of the three chief inns of the town in 1823.

HIGHBRIDGE HOUSE (7), 69 Hailgate, is probably the oldest building in the street. This house, now a club, was built c.1700 but it has undergone substantial alterations having been in the last sixty years the Majestic Cinema and then the offices of a haulage firm. Important features are the hipped slate roof, the deep bracketed eaves, the stone string course, the rusticated quoins and above all in the central bay the segmental pediment which formed part of the original doorcase with a sash window in eared architrave above. The house takes its name from the short street that links Hailgate with the Market Place. Here there was once a bridge over the Old River Derwent. On the south side of HIGHBRIDGE nos 1-5 are of the late 18th century with later alterations.

North of Highbridge House 67 HAILGATE (8) is an altered early 19th century house incorporating the site of a malt kiln. On a kneeler jutting out on the south gable is the date 1811. Opposite is 78 HAILGATE (9) a fine 3 storey late 18th century house now converted into flats. The novelist Nevil Shute lodged here in the 1920s when working at Howden airship station. In 1849 it was seemingly the house of a brewer for it was flanked by breweries. To the north is Dunns Lane, a little alleyway leading to Market Place.

Opposite Dunns Lane is 55-57 HAILGATE (10), an early 19th century house with tie-rod plates on the south gable in the form of the letters R and D – probably the initials of the brewer Robert Daniel. In 1849 the building was the London Tavern.

45-47 HAILGATE (11) are a particularly attractive pair of houses built of grey brick in Flemish bond with hipped Welsh slate roof and Ionic doorcases. Dating from 1837 they were built for Wesleyan ministers on land given by William Dyson. Adjoining no. 45 is a single storey brick and slate early 19th century building with Tudor style drip moulds over door and window. Next comes the Methodist Church which was formerly the schoolroom for the grand Wesleyan Methodist chapel, built 1786 and enlarged and refronted in 1832, which stood, until 1974, on a site to the rear.(12) On 5 July 1776 John Wesley visited the town, noting in his journal: 'I came to Howden a little before three, when a large congregation was soon gathered. All were serious, the more so because of a few claps of thunder that rolled over our heads'.

HAILGATE HOUSE, 41 Hailgate (13), is a handsome building of the 1840s. Of red brick with ashlar dressings and quoins it has a hipped Welsh slate roof with overhanging eaves and a prominent Greek Doric pedimented porch. Further along the street are a number of interesting houses including 46 HAILGATE which is probably of the mid 18th century having a steeper pitch to its roof than is general in the town. At this point the trail returns to BISHOPGATE (14).

Bishopgate, presumably named after the Bishops of Durham, was the only new street laid out in the town in the 19th century. 1-7 Bishopgate, 28-30 Bridgegate and 66 Hailgate were developed as one block in the late 1830s by John Sheppard, a Howden joiner. Framed in the view along Bishopgate is BRIDGEGATE HOUSE (15) a fine provincial town house of the mid 18th century with later additions and alterations. The six bay brick front laid in Flemish bond has a pronounced parapet with moulded stone coping which hides the pantile roof. The building was extended in the later 19th century when it was also seemingly refronted and the parapet built. The interior has a number of interesting features including an 18th century staircase, panelling in the sitting room and an ornate fireplace in the dining room. It is possible that the house was built by Thomas Graver, surgeon and apothecary, who purchased a house on this site in 1747. It was sold by his grandson in 1796 to Robert Spofforth, a successful attorney and future coroner of Howdenshire.

From Bishopgate the trail turns into Bridgegate and goes east along the south side of this street and Flatgate looking at buildings on the north side. The POLICE STATION (16) is an uninspiring red brick building of 1900 by Alfred Beaumont, the county surveyor. The Court House adjoining is more successful. Then follow two 18th century houses 9 and 7 BRIDGEGATE (17), the latter has a huge external stack at the east end and an unusual doorcase with a cornice with decorative pendants.

At the junction with Station Road the street becomes Flatgate. The street is so named because it led to the former large arable open field known as Flat Field from at least the 12th century. To the north up Station Road is the site of South Howden Station which was on the Hull and Barnsley line. The station was opened in 1885 and closed for passengers in 1955 and goods in 1959.

On the north side of Flatgate is HOWDEN HALL (18) which is somewhat hidden behind its impressive ten foot high early 18th century brick garden wall. The Hall is of two main dates. The seven by two bay block fronting the road being of the late 17th-early 18th century with a later 18th-19th century block behind. The former has a hipped Westmorland slate roof with overhanging modillioned wood eaves course. Most of the window openings on the south front are blocked, probably as a result of interior remodelling in the early 19th century when the large canted bay was added to the east front. There is a central pedimented Doric porch. The interior has a closed-string staircase with column-on-pedestal balusters. There are massive ceiling beams in certain rooms and some fine bolection moulded panelling. Howden Hall was built as the manor house for a small manor within Howden called Paradise. The manor was sold by Sir Thomas Metham of Metham to Nicholas Belt of Beilby in 1626 and it was held by his family until 1702 when it was purchased by the Worsop family. They retained the manor until the death of R. A. Worsop in 1849 when the Hall and estate were acquired by John Banks, a shipbuilder, from Howdendyke. In 1879 it was put up for auction and purchased by Miss Banks who subsequently married Henry Anderson who was the owner and occupier at the end of the 19th century.

Further east along Flatgate, on the south side, lies DERWENT HOUSE (19). This late Regency style stuccoed villa with overhanging hipped slate roof was built for Mrs. Dunn in 1853-4.

The trail now turns back along Flatgate and Bridgegate looking at the houses on the south-east side. At the corner of Flatgate is the late 19th century Station Hotel (post-1855 name). It replaced the Black Horse Inn which in the mid 19th century had stabling for 20 horses and a blacksmith's shop attached.

12 BRIDGEGATE (20) is one of the most pleasing buildings in this part of the town. A small mid-late 18th century three storey, three bay house with a pronounced parapet hiding the roof and a 20th century canted bay window. 14 Bridgegate is a late 18th-early 19th century farmhouse with contemporary doorcase. The painted facade of 24 BRIDGEGATE (21) is somewhat startling after the more subdued brickwork of much of the town. The Renaissance details of the ornamental shouldered surrounds and flanking pilasters to the ground floor windows and door are a Victorian refacing of an earlier building. In 1849 it was the William IV Inn which closed in the 1920s. The inn name can still be made out on the facade.

Further along Bridgegate, past Bishopgate, there are buildings of interest on both sides of the street. On the south side 36 BRIDGEGATE (22), the Working Men's Club, although altered in recent years retains tie plates dated 1825 and a rather unusual bulbous Victorian doorcase. The adjoining block 38-44 BRIDGEGATE (23) forms one of the most imposing buildings in Howden. This three storey, nine bay, brown brick and pantile terrace of the mid 18th century dominates the street. The interior of the terrace has fine staircases, panelling, a plaster ceiling and a very ornate fireplace.

On the north side 17-19 BRIDGEGATE (24) is a recently well restored late 18th century building with central arched entrance. The white tiled 23 BRIDGEGATE (25) is one of the few 20th century buildings in the centre of the town. It was built in 1923 for Cousins, grocers, on the site of the Angel Inn. The lane by the side was originally known as Angel Lane but it was renamed Batty Lane this century.

Now stand on the south-east side of the Bridgegate-Market Place junction and look towards the north and west. With the exception of nos 25-29 Bridgegate, the last of which retains an impressive Victorian shop front, the chief buildings to be seen are, or were, large inns.

On the west side of the junction the present CO-OP SHOP (26) was originally the Half Moon Inn which until the later 19th century was the town's chief inn. It is first recorded in 1710 when it was run by the Bullen family. A plan of the inn in the mid 19th century shows its extensive stabling and the large assembly room.

The inn was rebuilt in its present form in 1890 to the designs of the capable Goole architect H. B. Thorp. It became the Co-operative stores in the 1930s.

The Half Moon was superseded by its rivals on the opposite side of Bridgegate, BOWMAN'S HOTEL (27) and the WELLINGTON HOTEL (28). The Wellington, first recorded in 1823, was named after the Duke of Wellington. This three storey, six bay, stuccoed building has two large later 19th century canted sash bays on the ground floor and above, all along the front, a most attractive cast iron balcony. In 1864, when the Great Yorkshire Show was held at Howden, the inn was raised one storey. There is a coach entrance to a courtyard where in the mid 19th century pig and cattle markets were held.

The Bowmans was originally known as the Nag's Head. In 1840 it was owned by the brewer and malster Robert Daniel. By 1851 it had been taken over by John Bowman. The hotel underwent major extensions in 1864 including the addition of a large assembly room in the yard behind. The inn had stabling for 85 horses and was much frequented, as were its neighbours, at the time of the nationally important annual horse fair.

The trail turns south into Market Place. On the east side notice 3-5 MARKET PLACE (29). 3 is one of the few purpose-built Victorian shops in Howden, it is probably of the 1870s. Red brick with white brick details, a pair of round-headed windows on the second floor, and corner turrets. (cf.2-3 Cornmarket and 2 Churchside). 4 and 5 Market Place are a pair of unspoilt early 19th century shops with hung sash windows with glazing bars, painted lintels, decorative keystones and simple Victorian shopfronts. 6-10 MARKET PLACE (30) are a block of 18th and 19th century inns and shops. 6 is late 18th-early 19th century with Victorian shop front, dentilled eaves cornice and interesting doorcase down Dunns Lane. 7 is the Board Inn, three storey, early 19th century stuccoed front with rusticated quoins and triparite sash windows. 8 is mid-late 18th century, brown brick in Flemish bond with red brick details and a 19th century shop front. 9, White Horse Inn, late 18th century altered in 19th and 20th centuries. The White Horse Inn is recorded in 1702.

On the west side 33-34 MARKET PLACE (31) look as if the late 19th century stuccoed facade could be hiding a much earlier building. 31-32 Market Place, late 18th and early 19th century with later shop fronts.

At this point the trail turns into Vicar Lane and enters the area of small lanes and alleyways to the north of the church. This area was probably an infilling of a large early medieval market place which may have stretched from Cornmarket Hill and St. Helen's Square to the Market Place – moveable stalls having given way to permanent shops. This part of the town, dominated by the church tower, has immense character which has been enhanced by the recent successful development of houses and small shops in the area. Vicar Lane should not be missed. At the head of the lane there is a splendid view of the church tower flanked by an assortment of buildings. 1 VICAR LANE (32) is of the late 18th century with a Victorian shop front. Notice the acanthus leaf consoles flanking shop windows and the vine scroll console to left of house door. HOWDEN BOOKSHOP (33), (where copies of this book can be purchased) retains warehouse doors on first floor and joist. The buildings on the corner where the lane turns right are a development of the mid-late 19th century. The eroded plaque on the rounded corner bears a date, 1872, and initials, possibly J. S. which also appear on the front of 2 Churchside. The prominent grey brick rear of this last property can be seen at this point. Notice the corner turrets similar to those on 3 Market Place and 2-3 Cornmarket. The trail follows Vicar Lane northwards past the recent sympathetic shopping development and out into ST. HELEN'S SQUARE (34).

St. Helen's Square was once much more enclosed but the setting back of the flats on the west side and the opening up of the new housing and access road on the north side have changed its character. In recent years the square has lost the prominent former Congregational Chapel with its distinctive Italianate facade of 1878. The WAR MEMORIAL was erected in 1920. It was designed by Clement W. Jewitt of Hornsey, London and worked and fixed by C. J. Marston of Finsbury Park. It is a fine piece of work, an octagonal cross surrounded by statues in niches, in what the Department of Environment lists calls 'Art Nouveau Gothic' style.

The site of the housing north west of St. Helen's Square (35) was, in the mid 19th century, covered with small detached pleasure gardens each with their own summer house. The land was owned by George Auty and the lane to the gardens was known as Auty Trod.

The trail goes along in front of the flats and looking across the road one can see two important buildings 60-62 and 64 BRIDGEGATE (36). 60-62 was the King's Head Inn in the 19th century. A late 18th century brown brick building with sash windows above and a good late 19th century shop front below. 64 is an early 19th century building incorporating a very attractive shop front restored recently and replicating the original facade with two pleasing segmental bow windows. 66 Bridgegate adjoining has mid-19th century stuccoed facade with quoins and contemporary shop front.

Opposite look down Northolmby Street which was originally known as Applegate (now a short street off to the south), although Northolmby (as Nornebye) is recorded as a field name in the early 17th century. The street has a range of housing from the late 18th to the late 20th century. On the north side the terrace Campbell Place is dated 1860 and further down on the south the grander terrace 32-46 Northolmby Street, with decorative barge boards to its gabled dormers, has the date 1890 and the initials E.B. prominently displayed in the brickwork of the west gable. To the north can be seen the white painted Masonic Hall of 1889 (37).

On the south-east corner of Northolmby Street and Bridgegate is a development of the 1830s (38). The property with its rounded corner has a fine contemporary doorcase and shop front on its Bridgegate elevation. This was the town's Post Office in 1850. The trail goes on into Cornmarket or Cornmarket Hill.

This triangular area was called Cornmarket Sted in 1429 and a print of the 1860s shows merchants with bags of corn standing here, in the open, on market day. It is possible that most of the buying and selling took place in the three former public houses nearby, the Black Bull (1 St. John Street), the Spotted Cow (2-6 Pinfold Street) and the Black Swan on the west side, now 2-3 CORNMARKET (39). This last building appears to be of the early 19th century but refronted in the later Victorian period. The bold pub front of the 1870s has pilasters and just below the decorative eaves course is a row of diamond shaped red and black tiles. The decorative corner 'turrets' are to be seen elsewhere in the town.

West from Cornmarket runs St. John's Street which was known as St. John's Gate in the 17th century. The street contains a number of buildings of interest and is worth a detour. On the north side 3 St. John's Street is a fine late 18th century two bay, three storey house with pedimented doorcase and radial fanlight. Until 1988 this property was adjoined by two former Primitive Methodist chapels of 1837 and 1872. Primitive Methodism was introduced into Howden in 1819. Opposite is 14 ST. JOHN'S STREET (40) the earliest property in the street, formerly the offices of Greens, Howden's oldest established firm of solicitors. It is probably of the early 18th century; notice the steep pitch of the roof and the tumbled gable. It has tripartite sash windows and a mid-19th century doorcase with acanthus consoles. 6 St. John's Street and the adjoining building are a late 19th century house and workshop in red brick with white brick details; notice the decorative eaves course.

Further west on the north side are two attractive properties 21-23 ST. JOHN'S STREET (41). 23 is a three bay brick house of late 18th-early 19th century with later slate roof and rear extension. Notice the lions' heads on the cast iron guttering. 21-21A is a similar building although it dates from after 1850, and has large bay windows on the ground floor. St. John's Street ends at the Marsh and in the first half of the 19th century the area on the south side now known as St. Peter's Close was the site of a large tanyard. 22-30 ST. JOHN'S STREET (42) were probably lived in by tanyard employees; notice the large 1 and 2 on the gable of no. 22 which may signify the date 1812.

Return to Cornmarket and proceed down PINFOLD STREET. Nos 2-6 (43) were the Spotted Cow Inn in the mid 19th century. These properties which were fortunately saved from demolition and sympathetically restored in recent years date from the late 17th-early 18th century. 10-12 PINFOLD STREET are an unspoilt pair of cottages and on the opposite side 13 has a fine 1830s facade with Flemish bond brickwork and decorative doorcase.

The principal house in Pinfold Street is on the east side no. 16, THE CHESTNUTS (44), a large double pile red brick and slate house set in attractive grounds. The house was probably built around 1800 and its most distinctive feature is the large Tuscan porch on the south front.

On the west side 31 PINFOLD STREET (45) was the Neptune Inn in 1850. MARSH END (46) reached via the lane on the right was the industrial area of Howden in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Marsh which has been transformed into a nature reserve was common grazing land and for this reason a large circular pinfold stood to the east of the marsh to accommodate stray animals. To the north of the pinfold was Wright's large tannery established by 1807 and closed in 1855. South of Marsh Drain the present outbuildings incorporate the remains of other industrial undertakings. Here in 1849 was a further tannery which occupied the site of Wikeley and Peirson's linen, sail cloth, sacking and nail bagging manufactory which was established c.1815 and closed by 1842. It was later for a short period a flax mill. Adjoining was a steam flour mill in 1849. A leaflet about the Howden Marsh Nature Reserve has been produced by Howden Parish Council.

Back on Pinfold Street on the west side 37-49 PINFOLD STREET (47) present an unusual appearance with an irregular facade which has undergone considerable alteration. This block was the late 18th century workhouse for the town and surrounding area which was closed in 1839. As with most workhouses it was placed on the outskirts of the town, there being no buildings further south when it was erected.


The junction of Pinfold Street with Treeton and Knedlington Road is a good point to survey an interesting area of Victorian development. Some distance to the west on the south side of Knedlington Road a spacious Union workhouse was erected in 1839 designed by Weightman and Hadfield of Sheffield. After the Second World War it became Howden Hospital before being demolished. The workhouse was followed in 1843 by the town's first police station and lock-up, now 20 TREETON (48). This well-proportioned small red brick building was designed by the Hull architect H. F. Lockwood. Lockwood was responsible for a number of other police stations in the county as well as public buildings and private houses in Hull and Beverley. He later went to live in Bradford where with his partner Mawson he became the chief architect of Victorian Bradford and the new settlement of Saltaire. The building is of three bays with the central bay breaking forward with a round headed doorway in architrave flanked by small windows in eared architraves. The hipped slate roof has overhanging eaves on brackets.

On the opposite corner of the junction is the grey brick and stone Roman Catholic CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART (49) and adjoining presbytery which were built in 1850-52 to the designs of the prolific Catholic architect J. A. Hansom the inventor of the 'hansom cab'. The church which is in a late 13th century style comprises a nave with side aisles, an apse, chancel, and a bell turret. To the west of the church on Knedlington Road are two further Victorian properties, Albert Terrace, a row of four houses of 1863 (note datestone with Prince of Wales feathers), and the former Albert Villa, a typical large mid-Victorian stuccoed house.

The trail turns east along Treeton for a short distance before turning north along Parson's Lane, a pleasant footpath which runs along the west side of the Ashes Playing Fields and the churchyard. As the lane turns there is a glimpse of the Chestnuts and its coach house on the west side and then comes 4 PARSON'S LANE (50). This house of the mid 18th century, refronted in the 19th century, has a rear wing with internal features that suggest a late 17th century date. The early 19th century grey-yellow brick facade has a doorcase with twisted cable mouldings set in sunken panels. The other red brick and pantile houses on Parson's Lane are part of the 1830s development of the south side of Cornmarket Hill.


Going through Cornmarket the trail goes alongside Churchside to the north of the church. 12-13 CHURCHSIDE has an unspoilt Victorian facade with barge-boarded dormers, a cast iron balcony and shop front with ornate consoles with vine and grapes motif. Adjoining is the former YORK COUNTY SAVINGS BANK (51) which was built in 1850-51 to serve as Savings Bank, Mechanics' Institute and Magistrates' Court, though it was usually referred to as the Town Hall. A brick building with stone details, mullioned and transomed windows, arched entrance doorways with heavy doors with wrought ironwork decoration. On the first floor is a large oriel window.

The group of buildings 3-5 CHURCHSIDE have undergone alterations. 5 with its plain brick pilasters and a band was the Rose and Crown Inn in the mid 19th century. 3 and 4 are late 18th century with a brick band and pleasant doorcases with panelled reveals and rectangular fanlights. Then comes 2 CHURCHSIDE (52) and it is quite a surprise to come across this typical architect designed mid-Victorian commercial building in a town of modest brick and pantile properties. As with so many Victorian banks and offices its design is taken from Florentine merchant palaces. The stone-fronted ground floor consists of large windows and an entrance door divided by Corinthian pilasters supporting a decorated frieze with the cornice on two elaborate brackets with carved stone heads. On a cartouche over the door is the date 1876 and the initial JS for Jane Small.

The trail now returns to the Market Place which can be best surveyed from the Market Cross (53). The cross, carved by T. S. Ullathorne, stands on a medieval stone base of four steps and bears an inscription stating that it was erected in May 1909 when it replaced a lamp-post. Until 1822 an ancient Moot Hall stood to the south of the cross consisting of a first floor market hall or court room with shops below. Along the south side of Market Place are a variety of 19th century buildings chiefly three storey brick and slate. 17 is late Victorian and has attractive decorative cast ironwork and gabled dormer with decorative barge boards. 16 is a large early 19th century building with later ground floor front introduced when it became a bank. The early 19th century bank of Clough, Scholfield and Clarkson was housed in no.15 adjoining. This building is of c.1800, red brick and slate with eaves course and band, and large later shopfront.

The west side of the Market Place is now dominated by the impressive ruin of the choir of the church but as early 20th century photographs show this view was obscured by a series of buildings, across the east end of the churchyard, the chief of which was the Dog and Duck Inn. The buildings on the west side of Market Place have undergone a substantial amount of alteration; a major loss to the area occurred in the mid 1970s with demolition of 22-24 Market Place. (54) The site has still to be developed and on it can be seen remnants of timbers which suggest that the building was timber-framed behind its attractive mid-18th century brick front. In 1850 it was the Whittington and Cat Inn. 25 adjoining has a large central stack and may have early 18th century origins. 26 with its raised parapet and steeply pitched roof to rear is of the late 17th century with earlier origins. Interior has vestigial timber framing. 28-29 is of the early 19th century with later shop front.

Last but by no means least we come to the impressive SHIRE HALL (55) on the east side of the Market Place. The building dominates the area and represents the Victorian town's vain hope to regain some of its former prosperity. The red brick building with stone details and fishscale tile roof is reminiscent of Low Countries Gothic market or municipal buildings with its decorative brickwork, large mullioned and transomed windows, pair of entrance arches, stone balcony, stepped gable and clock tower. The niche which once held the statue of the medieval chronicler Roger de Hoveden is now empty. The foundation stone of this building, originally known as the Market Hall, was laid in July 1871 and the work completed by October 1872. The architects were Hadfield and Sons of Sheffield. The building consisted of a covered market area and two shops on the ground floor with a public hall above capable of seating 500 people.

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